Silvia Daniela Romano is an assistant professor and director of the Renewable Energies Group at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and also a member of CONICET. Prof. Dr-Eng. Romano's current research interests include liquid systems; production and characterization of liquid biofuels; correlation of biodiesel properties; modelling of physico-chemical properties in biodiesel; design and construction of equipment of characterization properties by international standards; and measurement of properties for the characterization of biofuels not included in international standards.
In early 2007, Intel announced the deployment of hafnium -based high-k dielectrics in conjunction with a metallic gate for components built on 45 nanometer technologies, and has shipped it in the 2007 processor series codenamed Penryn .   At the same time, IBM announced plans to transition to high-k materials, also hafnium-based, for some products in 2008. While not identified, the most likely dielectric used in such applications are some form of nitrided hafnium silicates (HfSiON). HfO 2 and HfSiO are susceptible to crystallization during dopant activation annealing. NEC Electronics has also announced the use of a HfSiON dielectric in their 55 nm UltimateLowPower technology.  However, even HfSiON is susceptible to trap-related leakage currents, which tend to increase with stress over device lifetime. This leakage effect becomes more severe as hafnium concentration increases. There is no guarantee however, that hafnium will serve as a de facto basis for future high-k dielectrics. The 2006 ITRS roadmap predicted the implementation of high-k materials to be commonplace in the industry by 2010.
What can we do in this situation? We do not have the luxury of using a different detector for each resolution. For general use, we can choose one detector which corresponds to a reasonably high but not necessarily the highest resolution. 4 cm-1 is a popular choice for this, because 4 cm-1 resolution is adaptable for condensed phase work. What if subsequently we need a higher resolution? There are a couple of ways to handle this eventuality. One way is to increase the focal length of the detector’s fore optics. Longer focus means higher F/# , lower throughput and a higher allowed resolution. It means, of course, a radiation loss also.